“Nothing in life is to be feared, it is only to be understood. Now is the time to understand more, so that we may fear less.”


― Marie Curie


We hope to understand the immune responses that emerge in response to the COVID-19 causing viral pathogen in the general populations and other populations at higher risk of exposure to SARS-CoV-2. 


The researchers will measure when immune responses develop, how long they last and, importantly, if antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 or other immune system components provide immune protection from re-infection. Further, we will examine immunological, demographic and medical risk factors for infection outcome and examine immune responses to infection across the disease spectrum. As vaccines become available for the population, we also want to analyze the antibody responses specific to vaccine administrations.



Data is gathered from diverse locations:

 All studies will enroll the population at large, who are placed in an environment (at least one day a week), of higher risk of contracting the virus and individuals from communities that have been disproportionately affected by COVID-19 including African American and Latino Americans.

 Blood samples will be collected: an enrollment sample and a sample every 2 months thereafter 

Participants will be asked general health questions, personal information, medical conditions and medications, and prior COVID-19 infection, including symptoms and testing information.  Height and weight will be measured at the study location, and a staff member will draw a blood sample from your arm. We will also ask you to provide saliva samples, and a finger-stick blood sample.

Participants will then have visits about every 4 weeks in which saliva, blood draw and finger stick blood samples will be collected. Depending on which site you are enrolled at and other factors, you may have visits every 2 weeks or there may be more than 4 weeks between visits. The blood draw amount will be determined by the outcome of analysis of previous samples, but could be up to 80ml, or about 5 tablespoons. You will also be asked about any health changes including new diagnoses, recent illnesses, new vaccinations acquired, non-COVID-19 related hospitalizations, and new or changes in chronic medications.